Live from Garuahi!

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Greetings, from Garuahi Village, Papua New Guinea. Just in time for another brief update from the ground. Currently, I’m writing this from the beach of Garuahi (the only place with consistent internet service), but we’ll start our update in Porotona.

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The rain season is officially upon us here in Milne Bay. It’d be tranquil, under most circumstances, to sit on a porch to work under the rain to work on your prospectus while in the tropics. Too bad I had birds to catch that day (that had to be caught). It rained hard enough to make the river impassible, which is unfortunate because my wrens were on the other side. Luckily, river levels have since returned back to normal, although the river bed itself is quite a different shape than it was pre-flood.

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My field technician, Ian Hoppe, has officially arrive to PNG (above: he’s on a roof with Tobudi. For fun, I think?). Ian is returning for his second trip to PNG to aid in completing both of my projects this year – we’re lucky to have him. The locals have surely missed him just as much as he missed them in return. Maybe he’ll join us for year three? Well, in any case, with his arrival, we’ve set off for Garuahi Village. Here, we have our work cut out for us as we try to complete a behavioural experiment, more implantation sampling (below), and pilot some other fun things out to attempt next year.

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Did you know that backwards binos make a nice magnifying glass? I needed one to really see the details of the pin feathers of the wren’s scapular feather patch. Speaking of which, the preliminary results of my first chapter are in and they’re not too terribly conclusive, but they are quite exciting. Like many things during field work, it only has me more excited to keep collecting samples. I’ll share more when I obtain a greater sample size from Garuahi. Also, during sampling efforts in Porotona, I’ve realized that if you play a female song of a divergent population of unornamented females (recorded in Obo, Western Province), the females here in Milne Bay province will ‘switch’ their songs and start to sing a song that closely resembles that of the other population. I should note that, structurally speaking, these birds normally sing songs so differently, if I didn’t know better, I’d assume they’re separate species. So, the fact that a Milne Bay bird sounded like a Western Province bird is exciting – but I’ve yet to see this effect in Garuahi. Strange.

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Doka (our local Papuan assistant), Ian, and I have been in Garuahi for a little over a week now. Above is a snapshot of the gear/food we brought for our stay as well as a lovely mountain view from the grass below (mountain photo being the first photo in this update). In this time, we’ve managed to catch individuals from 22 groups (totaling near 50 birds captured). We’re well underway with my behavioural experiment and somehow ahead of schedule. It’s an exciting time. We’re using a playback design like Erik’s before me, where we present a mount and a song pair to elicit a behavioural response. However, unlike Erik, here we are broadcasting only a female song and only a female mount. And we’re given them mounts of differing phenotypes to investigate the signaling function of the white scapular patch in this species. Just like with experiment 1, the results are still ongoing but I’ll keep you posted. In the meantime, bird pictures.

Until next time,

~John

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Under new(ish) management

Welkam! It seems like it’s been ages since this has been updated. Which makes sense, I suppose; Erik (or, Dr. Enbody as of spring 2018) did finish his dissertation and is off to Sweden to begin his post-doc in the coming months. And if the style of writing wasn’t a giveaway, this isn’t the normal updater for the WSFW blog.

I’m John Anthony Jones, one of the newbies at Tulane University working with the best* bird in the world (*for at least the next 4 years until I start a post-doc with another bird, probably). I say new, but I’m actually on my third trip to PNG currently as I finish my second year of my PhD (I’m coming to you live from Alotau). From time to time, myself and Jordan Boersma (Washington State University, Hubert Schwabl’s lab) will updating this.

I do suppose a bit of background is needed. Erik’s research found out a lot of neat things, but what is more relevant to my specific research interests is that he has found that it is unlikely that female ornamentation in the white-shouldered fairywren is a neutral biproduct of selection acting on males. In other words, female coloration is adaptive, probably. What that adaptation is, and the proximate mechanisms that facilitate ornament expression, is still unknown and is the focus of my research here in PNG. Broadly, I am interested in animal communication and, in the white-shouldered fairywren, I’m particularly keen on understanding how and why female, but not male, coloration diverged between closely related populations. What differences in the social and ecological environments contribute to this change and what does the signal mean, really? The photo below is a reminder of the marked differences we see in the extent of sexual dichromatism across PNG.

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So, what am I doing here in PNG? Well, I’m currently in Milne Bay Province, working in two villages (Porotona and Garuahi) to start answering these questions. In Porotona, I am first exploring how peripheral testosterone (i.e., outside the central nervous system) influences plumage expression in both males and females. Broadly, the goal here is to understand if testosterone outside the brain facilitates female ornament expression. I should have some preliminary results of this experiment (hopefully) in just a few short days. Pins and needles as I patiently wait for my treatment to take effect.

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In the meantime, Serena and I gave a presentation to the local school here in Porotona about the importance of grasslands and, of course, the lovely fairywrens that live there.

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In the coming weeks, I’ll begin my second experiment in the village of Garuahi. I’ll be using similar card-stock mounts that Erik used in his research, but asking slightly different questions. I’ll be presenting only a female mount of both morphological phenotypes paired with their local song phenotype to determine how males and females respond. What’s unique about this perspective is that this project gives us the opportunity to determine if and how intensively males attempt to court another female as well as how territorial females will be in response to a female intruder. Maybe, if cell service is available there, I’ll be able to update you with what happens in real time. But no promises. Stay tuned.

That’s about it for now. But I do want to give you one last thing. If you want to stay up to date with Erik’s research going forward, his website is: ‘erikenbody.github.io/’. And in case you’re curious about my background, mine is ‘johnajones.wordpress.com’ and I also can be found on twitter (@JonesJA91). Boersma doesn’t quite have these quite yet, but as soon as he does, I’ll be sure to link it here as well.

-John

 

4. Fairywren couple

Takeoff

I am flying up at 10,000 ft on the long leg between Louisiana and Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. By my calculations, I will have left my house at 8:00am on Monday and will not arrive at our field site on the Fly River until late on Tuesday night – one week and a day later.

This year I will be working with two other researchers interested in the effects of hormones on color and behavior in the White-shouldered Fairywrens.

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I am also planning on visiting the mountain village of Tari in the highlands where, if luck holds out, I’ll encounter some more King-of-Saxony Bird-of-Paradise! Come back for photos and mindless dribble from the field.

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Layover birding

One of the troubles with working in a country that is really, really, really far away from home, is that it takes an absurd amount of time to travel from my field sites to my front door. I left my site on Saturday, PNG time, and I wont arrive back at my house in Louisiana until Thursday PNG time! One of the contributing factors to this is spending time sorting permits and samples before importing the fruits of my research into the USA.

The only upside to this is an extended layover in some places with pretty neat birds and friends. On Sunday this week, I was taken by Jeff Crocombe up to Varirata National Park just outside of Port Moresby. This national park is PNGs best kept secret. It is the only park with maintained trails running through high quality habitat where you can mostly bird on your own. For this reason, there are some great birds to be found! We spent a full day hiking the trails here and managed a bunch of fantastic birds. Exciting for me, was this Dwarf Fruit-Dove, which I have looked for throughout my travels in New Guinea without success. The book calls them “surprisingly small,” which was an appropriate description.

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One of the appeals of Varirata NP is the presence of several major skulkers. Birders love ground dwelling birds that are impossible to see, because they’re a huge pain and apparently we’re all masochists. Three of these skulkers are the Chestnut-backed Jewel-babbler, Painted Quail-thrush, and Papuan Pitta. The former two are part of a colorful and secretive Australasian family and the names speak for themselves. They also sound surprisingly similar, but we managed to track down one of each that were each being quite vocal. Finally, the pitta was uncharacteristically vocal right smack in the middle of the day when any self respecting pitta should have been sulking quietly in dense thickets. None of my photos of these three are worth posting on their own, so I made a little composition.

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Chestnut-backed Jewel-babbler, Painted Quail-thrush, and Papuan Pitta

And a checklist of the other birds can be found here for the curious.
http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist?subID=S28849767

After leaving Port Moresby, I took a short hop over to Brisbane in southern Queensland. I had to spend a day to pick up dry ice, so I met up with Nick Leseberg who was kind enough to show me around a few local birding spots.

There were a few rain forest species that I hoped to see near Mount Glorious, where we started the morning. In the parking lot at Miala we located a massive fruiting tree that was being visited by about a dozen Lewin’s Honeyeaters, as many Satin Bowerbirds, Barred Cuckooshrikes, Wompoo Fruit-doves, and best of all, a smattering of male and female Regent Bowerbirds. Several Rose-crowned Fruit-doves were in attendance, but remained just out of sight for the entire morning, outside of a few flyovers. Just down the road, Nick quickly picked up on a small group of Red-browed Treecreepers amongst a Bell Miner colony. Nick had done research with the latter species and explained to me about their aggressive habits. Apparently, a small colony will vigorously defend a patch of forest from all other birds in the area. They are so successful at preventing other birds from coming in that insects become plentiful and devour the foliage, leading to small scale forest degradation. We found the treecreepers foraging right along the border of the colony and enjoyed watching Bell Miners chase off those birds caught unaware passing into their territory.

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Nick and I spent the afternoon traveling through the Lockyer valley looking for open country species and waterfowl. Along the way, Nick spotted this bearded dragon striking an epic pose on someone’s lawn.

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One of the species I had hoped to see was the Speckled Warbler. Nick indicated that they are a bit uncommon here. Yikes, boarding my plane so got to post this a bit early! Nick delivered on the warbler and we encountered a small flock of these boldly patterned Australian warblers.

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Fuscous Honeyeater!

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Northern PNG

Following the events of my previous blog, Phil and I embarked upon a road trip to try to capture as many fairywrens as possible in Northeastern New Guinea. Our aim was to better understand the variation in female coloration in this area.

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There is a highway leading between cities of Madang (where we were) and Lae, which is in Marobe province in on the far side of the Huon Peninsula. The road is smartly dubbed the “Lae-Madang Highway” and as we quickly found out, defies any previously held understanding of what road qualities constitutes a highway. With the anticipation of the unknown, we loaded up a Binitang research station land cruiser with rice for a week, an entire branch of betlenuts (gifts for folks along the way), a driver, security man, and our local guide.

We were told the first leg of the journey would take us 2 hours to the village of Walum and that the entire drive to Lae would take 6-7 hours. Clearly, our informants had not traveled the first 100km of road lately, which was in fact slowly, but steadily, falling off the edge of the Huon mountains and into a state of disrepair. What remained of the road was cake for the land cruiser, but became a 5 hour long ride of misery for the passengers neatly packed in the back of the vehicle. We made frequent stops for the transport buses which maddeningly drove this road and on more than one occasion we had to help pull them out of a pile of mud.

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This picture is just an example of the poor road conditions. Notice how the bridge just…ends.

The Markham Valley itself lies between the massive Huon and Owen Stanely Ranges. It is filled with a combination of palm oil plantation, sugar cane farms, cow pasture, and grassland. These different crops are mostly owned by the company Ramu Sugar, which thankfully maintains the road in the valley proper.

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Cacao is also grown in abundance on the periphery of this area and I am enjoying some recently bought chocolates that originate from here.

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We cruised down the road for a week, stopping at villages along the way each night, where we were always welcomed with open arms and a steaming pot of rice each night. Catching birds proved to be possibly more miserable than the Gewal adventure described before, but we managed some nonetheless. The trip was made more pleasant by the company of our Binatang staff and guides, who tirelessly taught us Pidgin and navigated local village politics to make sure we found places to safely search for birds.

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The teams all here

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Kui, our talented driver

We eventually washed up back in Madang where we enjoyed a much needed shower, before zipping off on an airplane to the far northwest of the country. My international flight was coming up and there was still one more population I hoped to visit this year so Phil and I wiped sleeplessness from our eyes and prepared to journey to the Vanimo surf lodge.

I hoped that perhaps in Vanimo we would be able to wind down a bit and stay in one location for a few days. The Vanimo Surf Lodge absolutely did not disappoint. With comfortable little beach houses located on a quiet stretch of coast, we found nothing to complain about.  Even better, we were quickly able to locate fairywrens right smack in the middle of town. Forget open stretches of healthy grassland, these birds were flourishing in miserable little pieces of grass behind homes throughout the city. I stayed for a couple days while we nailed down locations for catching, then left Phil to wrap up with catching as many birds as he could before he takes off next week.

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We also enjoyed a short hike into the hills that back up to the main road leading along the coast. The forest here is miraculously still standing tall (despite an unbelievably high rate of logging being carried out here) and held a number of species typical of healthy forest, such as bush turkeys and allegedly cassowary, and some specialties of the northern PNG coast. For example, this Ochre-collared Flycatcher (below). Here is the only spot we observed the somewhat poorly known Jobi Manucode, my personal last of this group of mostly glossy black birds of paradise.

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I am now transiting through Port Moresby and nailing down my last permit arrangements to depart for the USA. We have had a long and successful field season that has benefited from the enormous help provided by countless individuals. Phil and Remi were both incredible field assistants who carried the weight of the project with expertise and professionalism. Phil has had to put up with me throwing us into increasingly convoluted and frequently uncomfortable places to find fairywrens. None of the work would have been possible without the tireless and expert work of our biologist crew in Milne Bay Province made up of Serena, Dhoka, Gabriel, and Ela. In Western Province, we could not even catch one bird if it weren’t for the assistance and hospitality of Kipling, Aaron, and their families. In the bush north of Madang we had wonderful hospitality from Kotai and expert bush guiding from village man Bulil. Our trained field assistant Luda from Binatang was a pleasure to have working along through all our work in Madang and our trip to Lae wouldn’t have been possible without our driver Kui and security manager Jasper. Finally in Vanimo, Tori and Manu and the cooks provided invaluable advice and logistical help for catching birds up there.

 

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Much needed update!

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I’ll blow the dust off this blog to try to get in an update!

Phil and I have been busy in remote areas working with the wrens and haven’t had access to wifi to update.

The latest entry from Obo back in March briefly described our experimental work there, which I’m glad to say we completed! Using birds made out of card stock paper, we presented territorial pairs in both populations of fairywrens with each other’s phenotype. Concealed nearby, we dictated behaviors into a microphone which we will transcribe back in the US.

Following our trip down the river, we briefly visited a huge section of intact primary forest in the northern Fly River region. None of our grassland loving fairywrens here, but we enjoyed some birding including a few unusual observations, such as the New Guinea Flightless Rail. These huge birds are one of the relatively few remaining flightless rail species, which were once widespread through the southern Pacific island. Rails are notoriously difficult to see and this was no exception. Fortunately, this species has a habit of visiting recently chopped sago palm (a food source featured earlier in this blog) and the locals set up a blind for us to watch and wait for one to come out. 

After leaving Kiunga, we took a flight up to Madang on the north coast of PNG. Here, there is another subspecies of fairywrens that are distinct in appearance. This gives them a nice frosty pied appearance and I’ve wanted to visit a population of then for a long time.

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Catching birds near Madang was not easy. The region is characterized by extensive forest, so grassland habitats are slim. Eventually we managed to catch sixteen birds in the swamplands here, but these were the result of hard 15+ hour days through some particularly miserable habitat. The data and samples we got from these birds will go towards a project more broadly focused on understanding the variation in birds throughout the island.

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The top picture is with the resident hornbill at Binatang Research Station who made substantial contributions to this blog post.

Obo

Phil and I arrived in Obo last week. Obo is situated in the middle fly region of Papua New Guinea, or roughly halfway between the mountains and the ocean in Western Province. We’re a days paddle from the Indonesian border and a ten hour boat ride from the nearest town.

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Obo is a small village with locals who make a living selling either fish (barramundi and black bass) and crocodile skins (both fresh and saltwater). Compared to our other site on Milne Bay, they are also much more dependent on bush meat and most families regularly hunt wallabies, pigs, cassowary, or the introduced deer population.

Of note for our work, we enjoy the healthy Savannah here that is full of the lorentzi subspecies of White-shouldered Fairywren! In this population, females are brown and strongly contrast the male’s ornamentation.

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I am interested in why this population is so different than the birds in Milne Bay (see previous post!). This year, we are collecting samples and experimental data that will help us better understand this striking pattern of female ornamentation.